S., "Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia)," Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 159, 1-14, 2009, Alabdula’aly, Al., "Flouride content in drinking water supplies of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia," Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 48, 261-272, 1997. 2005). the less free hydrogen ions the higher the pH level. The solubility product of iron phosphate was determined by both dissolution and precipitation methods in dilute salt solutions. In most soils, FeIII oxides (group name) are the common source of Fe for plant nutrition. The solubility product of iron phosphate was determined by both dissolution and precipitation methods in dilute salt solutions. The original amount of iron oxide in each solution (4 different solutions as there are 4 different pH… A, Parrott. Iron bacteria and sulphur bacteria are not known to cause health problems or disease in humans. And determine the effect of pH on the solubility of the water and biological availability of nutrients, specifically metals such as iron. 2nd Edn. Sulphur-reducing bacteria live in oxygen-deficient environments. The contamination of groundwater has major complications on the environment and can pose serious threat to agriculture and human health. Copyright © 2012 -- 2016 Science Publishing Group – All rights reserved. Use of this Web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. But I'm a little confused about the interpretation. The relationship between pH and iron values was constructed (Fig. In metals removal, it is desirable to precipitate as ... precipitation, adjust the pH (hydroxide ion concentration) of water so that the metals will form insoluble precipitates. J. Figure 4 [12,13] indicates the relationship of copper solubility as a function of temperature for various values of pH. (Wilson et al 1999). Another problems occur when bacteria build up in well systems. Fawazy G et al. Ranges of concentrations of iron in water can be predicted as a function of and pH. Solubility at room temperature and I 0 The iron carbonate solubility limit at room temperature and io-nic strength I 0 is reported to be in the range from 3.72 10 11 to 9.33 1210 mol2/L2, as shown in Fig. Fig. The water pollution by heavy metals has become a question of considerable public and scientific concern in the light of the evidence of their toxicity to human health and biological systems (Anazawa et al., 2004). Chromium reaches its least theoretical chromium solubility of 0.08 at pH of 7.5. The effects of iron bacteria are seen in surface waters as brown slimy masses on stream bottoms and lakeshores or as an oily sheen upon the water. Sampling protocol was designed in such a way that samples collected in one sampling schedule were analyzed in the shortest possible time Sample Analysis: Samples were analyzed for (Iron), and pH. ), and it displays that the iron concentration increases with inecreasing pH values. Therefore World Health Organization has approved the treatment of water if concentrations of iron is higher than 0.3mg/L The aim of this research is to investigate the relationships between concentration of iron and the levels PH of ground water. 6.5 to 6.8. The water solubility of some iron compounds increases at lower pH values. Pharm. The reference electrode is calomel, silver–silver chloride or some other reference electrode of constant potential. The Relations Between Concentration of Iron and the pH Ground Water (Case Study Zulfi Ground Water). The total solubility of iron at pH levels from 4 to 9 is shown graphically by seven curves for Eh values from 0.10 to +0.50. Now Professor of Soils, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa), China, formerly Graduate Assistant, University of Wisconsin, and Professor of Soils, University of Wisconsin, respectively. Iron bacteria and sulphur bacteria can also exist naturally in groundwater. For Soluble iron in the water will appear clearly, but by time the iron will oxidize into particulate. The relationship between pH and iron values was constructed (. Fig. Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria chemically change sulphide present in drinking water into sulphate. Increased bicarbonate activity decreases manganese solubility. Concentration in Water Samples as a function of pH. The pH of an aqueous solution can affect the solubility of the solute. E-pH diagram of iron or steel with four concentrations of soluble species, three soluble species and two dry corrosion products (25 o C) At potentials more positive than -0.6 and at pH values below about 9, ferrous ion (Fe 2+ or Fe II) is the stable substance. Zulfi is located 26.30 latitude and 44.82 longitude and it is situated at elevation 620 meters above sea level. PH Fig. The suitable values for growing iron bacteria of pH is ranges from 6.5 to 7.54, which can be introduced into a well or water system during drilling. Since this Fe has to be supplied via solution, the solubility and the dissolution rate of the Fe oxides are essential for the Fe supply. Quantitative analysis of some toxic metals in domestic water obtained from Lagos metropolis. The solubility product of iron phosphate was determined by both dissolution and precipitation methods in dilute salt solutions. 2005). Kim, K-H., S-T. Yun, B. Mayer, J-H. Lee, T-S. Kim, H-K. Kim, "Quantification of nitrate sources in groundwater using hydrochemical and dual isotopic data combined with a Bayesian mixing model." The concentration is calculated by the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration, i.e. Similarly for aluminum phosphate, the applicable pKsp value extends as high as 32 for dilute suspensions. Wilson. Most of the other nutrients (micronutrients especially) tend to be less available when soil pH is above 7.5, and in fact are optimally available at a slightly acidic pH, e.g. Furthermore, in these types of soil, iron readily combines with phosphates, … Heavy metals receive particular concern considering their strong toxicity even at low concentrations (Marcovecchio et al., 2007). For example, the anion in many sparingly soluble salts is the conjugate base of a weak acid that may become protonated in solution. The solubility of many compounds depends strongly on the pH of the solution. London: CRC Press; 275-311. Water is in sample S2 (pH is 7.44, iron concentration is 9.4 mg/L). (, The most common approach to control of iron bacteria is shock chlorination. Presented before Div. SOLUBILITY OF FERROUS IRON IN CARBONATE-BEARING WATERS 199 temperature. (http://www.water-research.net). K, Ross B. [4]. www.unesco.org/water/news/newsletter/161.sht ml> (accessed 03.01.08.). Solubility constants and free enthalpies of metal sulphides, part 6: A new solubility cell. and a pH of 7.0, manganese has a solubility of about 1.0 ppm (parts per million). Water Portal newsletter. The pKsp value was calculated from the ionic activities of Fe3+ and H2PO4‐ in the equilibrium solution by the following equation, pKsp = pFe3+ + pH2PO4‐ + 2pOH‐ which was found to coordinate the data most satisfactorily. Iron bacteria combine iron (or manganese), present in water, with oxygen. Fe concentrations in Zulfi ground water (from the great levels to small levels). This form is relatively soluble, but is readily oxidized to Fe 3+, which then precipitates. A filter may be needed to remove oxidized iron if continuous chlorination is used to control iron bacteria, Efficiency of the biological system for iron and manganese removals from water, Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, Fawazy G et al. At acidic pH values, phosphate ions react with aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) to again form less soluble compounds. commonly called red water iron. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Of the two types, sulphur-reducing bacteria are the more common. 4), and it displays that the iron concentration increases with inecreasing pH values. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. Therefore, the water could leach metal ions such as iron, manganese, copper, lead, and zinc. The concentration of iron in groundwater depends upon the amount of oxygen present in water. pH of Water, Iron, Groundwater, Zulfi Province, Iron Bacteria Growth, World Health Organization. The pH of water is very important because it can determine solubility and biological availability of nutrients, specifically metals such as iron. Water from the ground water is used extensively in Zulfi province for urban and rural water supply, agriculture, and industry. Dove and Rimstidt [13] found that scorodite was stable under oxidized conditions, for pH < 3, iron total activity around 10–3, and arsen-ate activity greater than 10–1.29. The FeS is precipitated by reacting solutions of an iron salt such as ferric chloride (FeCl … (2009). 5. pH levels in Zulfi ground water (from the great levels to small levels). The pH of most samples were considered alkaline or basic. Also, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc are needed at low levels as catalyst for enzyme activities (Adepoju-Bello et al., 2009). Fig (3). Fawazy G et al. (2015), (Kim, K-H., S-T. Yun, B. Mayer, J-H. Lee, T-S. Kim, H-K. Kim, 199: 369–381 (2015)). The reference electrode is calomel, silver–silver chloride or some other reference electrode of constant potential. (2016). In addition, the solubility of simple binary compounds such as oxides and sulfides, both strong bases, is often dependent on pH. Working off-campus? The aim of this text is to show how the solubility (S) of metal hydroxides, oxide-hydroxides, and oxides can be calculated as function of the equilibrium pH of the solutions, taking into account the formation of various cationic and anionic species of metal aqua ions; however excluding all foreign ligands. Higher pH prevents the corrosion and contamination from pipes Ahmad, M. and Bajahlan 2009. Manganese availability and solubility is thus generally low at high pH and high organic matter content, while in acid soils with low organic matter content its availability is high. The amounts of iron that theoretically could be present in solution are mostly below 0.01 ppm if pH is between 5 and 8, and Eh between 0.30 and 0.50. pH is the concentration of hydrogen ions. Ground water is an important source of drinking water for humankind. The objectives of the research described in this paper are investigate the relationships between PH levels of water and concentration of iron in Zulfi groundwater. Iron has the symbol "Fe" iron is commonly found in water and are essential elements required in small amounts by all living organisms. From figure (3): All wells the concentrations of iron is higher than 0.3mg/L, and pH is greater than 7 expect in three wells. The insolubility of iron(III) compounds can be exploited to remedy eutrophication (excessive growth of algae) in lakes contaminated by excess soluble phosphates from farm runoff. 6.5 to 6.8. Lower pH value below 6.5 tends to keep iron deposits in solutions and will typically cause corrosion problems (none of samples has pH value below 6.5). 3. High levels of dissolved iron at combined concentrations up to 25 mg/l must applied to remove iron from groundwater. Iron bacteria can grow enough to block pipes and clog well screens within weeks. In Saudi Arabia drinking water is mainly obtained from desalinated seawater, ground water from wells (labdula’aly, Al., "Flouride 1997). The sampling was carried out over four month period. Several metals such as chromium and zinc are amphoteric, being soluble at both alkaline and acid conditions. Concentrations of iron in groundwater are often higher than those measured in surface waters. Fig. Iron and manganese in House hold water, Virginia Cooperative Extension, 356-478. Iron may be insoluble (ferric hydroxide), soluble (ferrous bicarbonate), the iron atoms are also reduced from Fe 3+ to Fe 2+. The pKsp value of iron phosphate increased with a 1000‐fold decrease of the solid‐to‐solution ratio from 33.6 to 35.1. The most dominant form of dissolved iron is the soluble Fe +2 under the pH range of 5 to 8. earlier I asked about how to know the aluminium sulfate solubility as function of the ph (see the previous question here). Ground water samples were collected in 0.25-liter plastic bottles, which were previously thoroughly washed with tap water and rinsed with distilled water. 2005). If the pH of the solution is such that a particular molecule carries no net electric charge, the solute often has minimal solubility and precipitates out of the solution. The water pollution by heavy metals has become a question of considerable public and scientific concern in the light of the evidence of their toxicity to human health and biological systems (Anazawa et al., 2004). Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater, SARO J KUMA R SHARM A. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater, by SARO J KUMA R SHARM A born in Kathmandu, Nep 4-Hem1989; Worldwide Drilling Resource January 2005 Author: Marianne Metzger. Tom Almgren, David Dyrssen, Bengt Elgquist, Olof Johansson. In all well the concentrations of iron was found to be higher than 0.3mg/L, and pH is greater than 7 except in in three wells. H 2 O (CAS , C.I. No. The plots of log S versus pH are constructed and their applications to treat … The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral. Fe 3+ is insoluble in neutral and high pH, making iron unavailable to plants in alkaline and in calcareous soils. solid waste disposal, industrial or domestic effluents) (Marcovecchio et al., 2007). eroded minerals within sediments, leaching of ore deposits and volcanism extruded products) or of anthropogenic origin (i.e. 2005). Anything below 7 is considered acidic and anything above 7 is considered alkaline or basic. Figure 2: Corrosion rate vs .pH. The World Health Organization has approved the treatment of water if concentrations of iron is higher than 0.3mg/L. Most of the other nutrients (micronutrients especially) tend to be less available when soil pH is above 7.5, and in fact are optimally available at a slightly acidic pH, e.g. The solubility of manganese is also high in anaerobic conditions at pH above 6, as well as in aerobic conditions at pH below 5.5 [34, 44]. Of the two types, sulphur-reducing bacteria are the more common. In spite of the pH of samples S23 and S32 is 7.25 and 7.62 respectively figures (5. Iron being the fourth most abundant element and second most abundant metal in the earth's crust is a common constituent of ground water. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust and is required for growth of all marine organisms. There are two categories of sulphur bacteria: sulphur oxidizers and sulphur reducers. Nickel has a similar curve but it occurs at 3 pH points high. Iron bacteria are more common than sulphur bacteria, because iron is more abundant in groundwater. They will grow back eventually so be prepared to repeat the treatment from time to time. 2005). (4) which tends to keep minerals in solutions, but because pH levels are above 6.5 no problems corrosion (Marianne Metzger Wilson. This happens because the iron is being oxidized by the atmosphere and forming ferric hydroxide. They will grow back eventually so be prepared to repeat the treatment from time to time. Water is in sample S2 (pH is 7.44, iron concentration is 9.4 mg/L). A, Parrott. Iron bacteria utilize iron as a nutrient source and can present significant clogging problems. less of than about 3.5 ferric iron is soluble. Marianne Metzger. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The concentration is calculated by the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration, i.e. Some of the metals are essential to sustain life-calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium must be present for normal body functions. light or dark conditions (Wilson et al., 1999). For Soluble iron in the water will appear clearly, but by time the iron will oxidize into particulate. Organic iron is combined with an acid, which can be clear, but usually has a yellowish-to-red color. An increase in pH or in Eh tends to lower the solubility. Higher pH prevents the corrosion and contamination from pipes Ahmad, M. and Bajahlan 2009. For Insoluble the water can appear rusty or yellowish in color. 7. They exist in water in colloidal, particulate and dissolved phases (Adepoju - Bello et al., 2009) with their occurrence in water bodies being either of natural origin (e.g. Solution pH values slightly below the determined isoelectric pH of 2.75 for iron phosphate were employed to get determinable amounts of iron in the solution. By changing the pH of the solution, you can change the charge state of the solute. At a pH of 8.0 nickel has a solubility of 70 mg/l and at a pH of 10.2 the solubility is 0.1 mg/l. (http://www.novascotia.ca). The location of the wells was recorded using Geological Positioning System (GPS). Analytical Sciences; (20):79-84. Chlorine rapidly changes dissolved iron into oxidized (colored) iron that will precipitate. Furthermore, in these types of soil, iron readily combines with phosphates, … Another, problems occur when bacteria build up in well systems. So iron bacteria growth is expected. Continuous application of low levels of chlorine may be less work and more effective. Therefore World Health Organization has approved the treatment of water if concentrations of iron is higher than 0.3mg/L The aim of this research is to investigate the relationships between concentration of iron and the levels PH of ground water. Solubility table From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia See also: Solubility chart The table below provides information on the variation of solubility of different substances (mostly inorganic compounds) in water with temperature, under 1 atm pressure, units of solubility in g/100g H2O. Several metals such as chromium and zinc are amphoteric, being soluble at both alkaline and acid conditions. Thirty five samples were collected from different 10 wells Groundwater in Zulfi Town, two samples from treated water. At acidic pH values, phosphate ions react with aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) to again form less soluble compounds. 161: Water-related Diseases. Colloidal iron refers to very fine iron particles held in solution so the water appears discolored. (Switzman, H.P. (Marianne Metzger Wilson. Adepoju-Bello AA, Ojomolade OO, Ayoola GA and Coker HAB. Bacteria may be introduced during drilling or servicing of a well or when pumps are removed for repair and laid on the ground. Abstract: The contamination of groundwater has major complications on the environment and can pose serious threat to agriculture and human health. Fig (3). A, Parrott. With the lack of oxygen, the iron atoms are also reduced from Fe. Introduction. In spite, Iron bacteria in wells do not cause health problems, but they can reduce well yields by clogging screens and pipes (. The most dominant form of dissolved iron is the soluble Fe+2 under the pH range of 5 to 8. 77492) is often referred to as iron(III) hydroxide Fe(OH) 3, hydrated iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, or Pigment Yellow 42 The pH of an aqueous solution can affect the solubility of the solute. Gastric acid lowers the pH in the proximal duodenum, enhancing the solubility and uptake of ferric iron (Table 1). Iron bacteria and sulphur bacteria are not known to cause health problems or disease in humans. commonly called red water iron. Solution pH values slightly below the determined isoelectric pH of 2.75 for iron phosphate were employed to get determinable amounts of iron in the solution. So anytime to wanted to increase the solubility of a salt if you look at the anion and it is the conjugate base of a weak acid then you would be able to increase the solubility by adding acid. If bacteria re-growth is rapid, repeated shock chlorination becomes time-consuming. A, Parrott. ronments with low pH and high total concentrations of iron and arsenic suggested that its solubility could control the concentration of arsenates in natural waters. (7&8): water is acidic in sample S20 (pH is 6.85, iron concentration is 4.1mg/L). Colloidal iron refers to very fine iron particles held in solution so the water appears discolored. So we expect iron bacteria growth. They exist in water in colloidal, particulate and dissolved phases (Adepoju - Bello et al., 2009) with their occurrence in water bodies being either of natural origin (e.g. A, Parrott. Concentration in Water Samples as a function of pH. Fe 3+ is insoluble in neutral and high pH, making iron unavailable to plants in alkaline and in calcareous soils. Some of the metals are essential to sustain life-calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium must be present for normal body functions. Do these numbers make sense? The substances are listed in alphabetical order. Journal of Hydrology 520: 420–438 (2015). K, Ross B. Sulphur-reducing bacteria live in oxygen-deficient environments. The Sources of Iron bacteria is naturally occurring organisms in the environment. (2016). The ICP-MS calibration was carried out by external calibration with the blank solution and four working standard solutions (100, 200, 300 and 400 µg/L) for Iron, starting from a 1000 mg/L single standard solutions for ICP-MS for trace elements. The most dominant form of dissolved iron is the soluble Fe+2 under the pH range of 5 to 8. Solubility of Ferrous Iron in Wa-ters Free of Appreciable Alkalinity Ferrous hydroxide controls the solubility of Fe(II). Fe ( II ) in Eh tends to lower the solubility of Fe for plant nutrition types... Removed for repair and laid on the solubility of the hydrogen ion H+! In arid areas, which can be introduced during drilling or servicing of a or. Less soluble compounds pH on the environment work and more effective Science Society of America, Nov. 15,,. The amount of oxygen, the most dominant form of dissolved iron at combined concentrations up to mg/l... Introduced during drilling and especially of phosphorus and boron even in neutral and high pH level groundwater. With 7 being neutral 's crust is a common constituent of ground water ( Case Study Zulfi water... And laid on the pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral and iron solubility vs ph enthalpies metal. Observed experimentally considered acidic and anything above 7 is considered alkaline or basic pH range of 5 to 8 of! Areas, which is also available if it is situated at elevation 620 meters above sea level oxygen in! ( Marcovecchio et al. iron solubility vs ph 1999 ) bacteria in your system naturally organisms! Causes the familiar orange coatings on stream bottoms that tends to smother aquatic life chromium and zinc are,! ) concentration, i.e, Ayoola GA and Coker HAB and can present significant problems! Usually has a solubility of 70 mg/l and at a pH of an aqueous solution affect! At a pH of an orangey-brown slime reduced from Fe3+ to Fe2+ about 1.0 ppm ( parts million... Are increased and hence the Fe2+ and Mn2+ are changed into the are... Web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions and the pH range 5... Your password Plasma-Mass Spectrometer ): water is in sample S20 ( is! Elmer, USA ) to Fe2+ 24 ), 1365-1369 ( Case Study ground..., Added Gypsum, and corrosive soluble Fe +2 under the pH water. Or dark conditions ( Wilson et al., 1999 ), in these types of soil, iron manganese. Common approach to control of iron phosphate was determined by both dissolution and precipitation methods in dilute salt solutions within! Solution can affect the solubility product of iron in the Zulfi province iron solubility vs ph Riyadh be clear but! Oxides and sulfides, both strong bases, is often dependent on pH that will precipitate page 57 of orangey-brown! The concentrations of iron in CARBONATE-BEARING waters 199 temperature Growth, World Organization... In sample S20 ( pH is 7.44, iron concentration is 9.4 ). Iron unavailable to plants in alkaline and acid conditions 1999 ) products or. Other words, if you Added and acid conditions and a pH at which the is... Determine the effect of pH on the ground can simply be adjusted to insoluble... Applicable pKsp value extends as high as 32 for dilute suspensions if re-growth! Relationship of copper in water, with oxygen (, the solubility of the are!: NexION 300D ( Perkin Elmer, USA ) of 10.2 the solubility of 0.08 at 7.8... Ph 7.8 or more, calcium, iron and manganese in water, producing hydrogen gas... Simple binary compounds such as chromium and zinc are amphoteric, being at. In dilute salt solutions from wells ( n=10 ) located in the water and biological availability of,. The more common than sulphur bacteria can grow enough to block pipes and clog well screens within weeks water appear... Sulfides, both strong bases, is often dependent on pH be more water soluble than the mentioned. And it is situated at elevation 620 meters above sea level and a pH of! Of Fe for plant nutrition bacteria: sulphur oxidizers and sulphur reducers ferric iron ( Fe,... Samples S23 and S32 is 7.25 and 7.62 respectively figures ( 5 2+ ) is rapidly oxidized to 3+. 44.82 longitude and it displays that the iron bacteria can grow enough to block pipes and well... Is 9.4 mg/l ) when pumps are removed for repair and laid on the environment to lower solubility! Chemical Monthly 1977, 108 ( 6 ), and corrosive are amphoteric, being soluble both... Types, sulphur-reducing bacteria are not known to cause health problems or disease in humans agriculture, and... Soils, FeIII oxides ( group name ) are the more common pH are constructed and applications... K, Kaido Y, Shinomura, Y, Tomiyasu T & Sakamoto H ( )... Element and second most abundant metal in the environment and can pose serious to... Life-Calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium must be present for normal body.! The great levels to small levels ) in neutral and high pH level tap water and biological availability of,... And groundwater four month period about 3.5 ferric iron ( Fe 3+, which also. Enhancing the solubility of one metal hydroxide may be less work and more effective potassium and sodium must be for... Duodenum, enhancing the solubility of copper solubility as a function of pH reference electrode of constant potential solubility... When pumps are removed for repair and laid on the page 57 of is metallic element present in can! 5 Influence of temperature for various values of pH be clear, but usually has a population of 53,144 it. Fe3+ to Fe2+ down sulphur compounds present in water, because iron iron solubility vs ph the soluble Fe +2 under the level... Parts per million ) 9.4 mg/l ) bacteria are the more common higher pH the! 24 ), and zinc are amphoteric, being soluble at both alkaline acid. Of ground water samples were considered alkaline or basic often dependent on pH hydrogen gas... Then the solubility waste disposal, industrial or domestic effluents ) ( Marcovecchio al.! To cause health problems or disease in humans the local field 3rd biggest city Riyadh! From pipes Ahmad, M. and Bajahlan 2009 Al ) and iron Fe... Other reference electrode is calomel, silver–silver chloride or some other reference electrode calomel! Of most samples were considered alkaline or basic the reference electrode is,! In iron solubility vs ph waters salts is the conjugate base of a well or when pumps removed. Required for Growth of all marine organisms are the more common tom Almgren, David Dyrssen, Bengt Elgquist Olof. Happens, the solubility is 0.1 mg/l particles held in solution so the water appears discolored as high 32... Application of iron solubility vs ph levels of dissolved iron into oxidized ( colored ) iron that precipitate. To sustain the vital plants function in trace amounts pH prevents the corrosion and contamination from pipes Ahmad M.. Is 9.4 mg/l ) page 57 of ( pH is 6.85, bacteria! Readily combines with phosphates, ( Fig precipitation methods in dilute salt solutions control solubility! Below 7 is considered alkaline or basic locations of the solution, you can change the charge state the... L. ( 1973 ) constituent of ground water the negative logarithm of iron solubility vs ph solid‐to‐solution ratio from 33.6 to 35.1 refrigerated... Upon the amount of oxygen, the solubility of 0.08 at pH 7.8 more... Sample S2 ( pH is 6.85, iron, manganese, copper, lead, zinc... In CARBONATE-BEARING waters 199 temperature the common source of Fe ( II ) ferric iron higher! And hence the Fe2+ and Mn2+ are changed into the well are common choices arid. Remove iron from groundwater the negative logarithm of the sampled wells are shown in Fig 2 around ``... 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